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Author Weis, Judith S., 1941-

Title Marine pollution : what everyone needs to know / Judith S. Weis
Published Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, [2015]
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Description 1 online resource
Series What Everyone Needs to Know
What everyone needs to know.
Contents 1. Introduction to the Marine Environment and Pollution -- What is the marine environment? -- What are some basics of marine ecosystems and food webs? -- Why is there concern about the state of the oceans? -- What is a contaminant? Is there a difference between a contaminant and a pollutant? -- What are the major sources of pollution in the marine environment? -- What are the major ways that land-based pollutants enter the marine environment? -- Which pollutants enter the ocean from the air? -- Can objects in the water cause pollution? -- How can aquaculture cause pollution? -- Once in the water, what happens to the pollutants? -- How do chemicals get into marine animals? -- What is toxicity? -- What effects can pollutants have besides killing living things? -- How is the degree of toxicity measured? -- How can field studies be used to understand toxicity? -- Why are some species more sensitive to pollution man others?
Hasn't ocean pH changed in the past? Why is this different? Will marine organisms be able to adapt? -- Which species are most threatened by ocean acidification? -- How can organisms protect themselves against effects of warming and acidification? -- What economic effects could result from Ocean Acidification? -- What can we do to mitigate effects of ocean acidification? -- 10. Biological Pollution -- Where does microbial pollution come from? -- How is microbial pollution detected? -- What kind of diseases may result from exposure? -- How can people know if it is safe to swim at their favorite beach? -- What are invasive species? -- How do they get to new locations? -- What are some invasive marine fishes and what harm do they do? -- What are some invasive jellies and what harm do they do? -- What are some invasive crabs and what harm do they do? -- What are some invasive sedentary attached organisms and what harm do they do?
How can oil spills be cleaned up? -- What are the trends in oil spills over the decades? -- 5. Metals -- What are the major sources of metal pollutants? -- What are some highly mercury-contaminated sites? -- How does the chemical form of the metal affect what it does? -- Where do metals concentrate in the environment? -- What are the toxic effects of different metals? -- What can organisms do to defend themselves against metal toxicity? -- Can elevated levels of metals in seafood be a risk to humans? -- What are the trends in metal pollution? -- What can be done to reduce metal pollution? -- What is natural attenuation? -- What is capping? -- What is Confined Aquatic Disposal (CAD)? -- What is bioremediation of metals? -- What is phytoremediation? -- 6. Pesticides and Industrial Organic Chemicals -- What are the sources of pesticides to the marine environment? -- What happens to these chemicals after they enter the water?
What are some invasive seaweeds and what harm do they do? -- What are some invasive marsh plants and what ham) do they do? -- Can an alien species do some good? -- What can be done to prevent new invasive species from arriving? -- What can be done after an invasive species has arrived? -- What can be done after a species has become abundant? -- Can invasive species be controlled by eating them? -- 11. Regulating and Reducing Pollution -- What is the Ocean Health Index? -- What is the Law of the Sea? -- What is MARPOL? -- What is the London Convention? -- What national laws in the United States promote clean water? -- What is Noaa's Role in the United States? -- How does the European Union regulate marine pollution? -- What are some success stories? -- How can we reduce pollution from aquaculture? -- What is "Green Chemistry?" -- Since climate change is such a major threat, are there any effective national and international policies to curb it?
What are the components of oil? -- What are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)? -- What are the major sources of oil in the ocean? -- What happens to the oil after it is spilled? -- What happened with the Exxon Valdez? -- What were the causes of the accident? -- What actions were taken after the spill to protect shorelines? -- How was the spill cleaned up? -- Have there been some resulting policy changes to prevent future spills? -- What happened with the well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico? -- What responses were taken? -- Why was the use of dispersants so controversial? -- What happened to the oil and dispersants? -- What were the overall impacts to the ecology of the Gulf? -- What happens when oil reaches shorelines? -- How does oil harm marine birds and mammals? -- What kinds of toxic effects does oil produce in other marine animals? -- How long do effects of oil spills last? -- Can oiled birds and sea otters be rehabilitated?
What can be done about combined sewer overflow? -- What techniques in the water can reduce effects of eutrophication? -- What is the prognosis for eutrophication in the future? -- 3. Marine Debris -- Why is marine debris so abundant? -- Where does marine debris come from? -- What are the major constituents of debris? -- What happens to the plastic? Does it break down? -- How is debris in the ocean measured? -- How much is there? -- Why does debris accumulate in large patches in the middle of the ocean? -- Where else does debris accumulate? -- Granted it is ugly, but can the litter harm marine life? -- What problems are caused by derelict fishing gear? -- What are the biggest pieces of marine litter? -- Can marine debris harm people? -- What can be done about it? Can cleanups be effective? -- What about public education? -- Are there laws to reduce marine litter? -- Can new technologies reduce the problems of marine debris? -- 4. Oil and Related Chemicals
What happens once a metal is taken up into an organism? -- Where and how are metals stored in organisms? -- How are organic contaminants taken up by organisms? -- How do organisms metabolize organic contaminants? -- Which marine organisms are good sentinels for bioaccumulation and biomagnification of chemicals? -- What are safety issues for humans who consume seafood that may be contaminated? -- What is Minamata disease? -- Are there any concerns about mercury pollution in seafood today? -- Can metal pollution be found in calcium supplements derived from oyster shells? -- What problems can result from eating seafood containing organic contaminants? -- Can dioxin contamination be found in seafood? -- Can contaminants be found in fish oil supplements? -- How can eating fish or shellfish that have accumulated HAB toxins cause disease? -- What is Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)? -- What is diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP)?
What is neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP)? -- What is amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP)? -- What is Ciguatera? -- How can the incidence of poisoning by marine toxins be reduced? -- 9. Climate Change and Ocean Acidification -- What causes global warming or climate change? -- What problems are happening or expected to happen in the marine environment because of climate change? -- Why are coral reefs particularly vulnerable? -- What happens in polar regions? -- Can climate change affect the distribution of species? -- Can climate change have effects on aquaculture? -- Can climate change affect the size of animals? -- Can climate change affect predator/prey interactions? -- What effects can happen from sea level rise? -- Why is sea level rising faster than was predicted? -- What can be done about sea level rise? -- What is pH? -- What is ocean acidification? -- What effects are produced by ocean acidification?
What is the importance of the book Silent Spring? -- What are some newer types of pesticides? -- What are "third-generation" pesticides? -- How are pesticides regulated? -- What is integrated pest management? -- What are the effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms? -- What is endocrine disruption? -- What are biomarkers? -- What kinds of population level effects can be produced? -- What community level effects can be produced? -- What can marine organisms to do defend themselves against toxic effects? -- What are the trends in pesticide contamination? -- What are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)? -- How did PCBs get into the marine environment? -- What are Dioxins? -- How do they get into the marine environment? -- What effects do they have? -- Can PCBs or dioxins be a risk to people who eat seafood? -- What can be done about organic chemical pollution? -- 7. Emerging Concerns -- What other types of contaminants are we beginning to learn about?
What laws regulate marine pollution? -- Why are some contaminants that have been banned still a problem? -- How extensive and severe is marine pollution around the world? -- 2. Nutrients -- Why are nutrients considered pollutants, since they are required for life? -- Where do the nutrients come from? -- How does a sewage treatment plant work? -- What is Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO)? -- What are Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs)? -- What effects do excess nutrients have, or what is eutrophication? -- What effects are seen in seagrasses? -- What effects are seen in coral reefs? -- What is a dead zone? -- Can excess nutrients damage salt marshes? -- How widespread is eutrophication? -- What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? -- What are some harmful algal species? -- How widespread is their occurrence? -- What can be done to reduce farm runoff? -- What can be done to reduce runoff from cities and suburbs?
What steps can local and state governments take to reduce pollution? -- What actions can individual citizens take to reduce marine pollution? -- What are the overall status and trends of marine pollution?
Why are pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) a concern? -- What can be done about PPCPs? -- What are polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and why are they a concern in the marine environment? -- What is the problem with fluorinated compounds? -- What is the concern about alkylphenols? -- What are nanoparticles and what is the concern about them? -- Are existing regulations adequate to protect against harm to marine life, wildlife, and humans by these new chemicals? Are there any technological improvements? -- What is Noise pollution? -- What types of noise occur in the ocean? -- What effects are produced by noise pollution? -- What can be done about noise pollution? -- Are there concerns about radioactivity in the marine environment? -- What is tight pollution? -- What can be done about light pollution? -- 8. Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification -- What is bioaccumulation and what is biomagnification?
Summary Marine pollution occurs today in varied forms--chemical, industrial, and agricultural-and the sources of pollution are endless. In recent history, we''ve seen oil spills, untreated sewage, eutrophication, invasive species, heavy metals, acidification, radioactive substances, marine litter, and overfishing, among other significant problems. Though marine pollution has long been a topic of concern, it has very recently exploded in environmental, economic, and political debate circles; scientists and non-scientists alike continue to be shocked and dismayed at the sheer diversity of water pollutan
Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index
Notes Print version record
Subject Marine ecology.
Marine pollution.
Form Electronic book
ISBN 0199996709 (electronic bk.)
9780199996704 (electronic bk.)